The terms neuropsychological rehabilitation, cognitive rehabilitation, cognitive training and cognitive remediation have been used interchangeably to describe treatment programs designated for the recovery or modification of cognitive abilities. Rehabilitation can be used to improve skills such as attention, memory, executive functions, language, praxis, visual function, learning ability, temporal-spatial orientation, among others. These capabilities may be disabled due to brain injuries (caused by accidents, trauma, strokes etc.), neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and other dementias, multiple sclerosis, etc.) or neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, OCD, etc.) or even stress.

Before starting treatment, it is necessary to undertake a neuropsychological assessment, so that the professional can identify which cognitive functions are impaired and which are preserved.

During the sessions, training exercises are practised, with the aim of strengthening cognitive functions. Often, some activities are suggested for homework as a way of enhancing the treatment. It is important that the patient has an active and engaging posture. A family member might be involved in the treatment in order to help the patient apply the gains obtained in sessions to everyday situations.